Police said Alexander Protopopov, acting deputy chief of Russia’s prison service, oversaw the dismantling of the road in the far-northern Komi region.
He then sold off its 7,000 reinforced concrete slabs for personal profit, they added.
Officials believe the scheme cost the government more than 6m roubles ($79,000; £54,000).
The road was “dismantled and driven away” over the period of more than a year, between 2014 and 2015, the Investigative Committee said in a statement quoted by the AFP news agency.
The concrete slabs were then used by a commercial company which also sold them on for a profit, it added.